1. Installing an Application
If you want to install an
application on the terminal server that is in Terminal Services mode so
that users can access it from thin clients, the proper way is to install
the application through the Add/Remove Programs applet inside the
Control Panel and not
through the application's default installation method. By using the
Add/Remove Programs applet, Windows ensures that program files are
installed to the Windows root directory on the server, as opposed to the
Windows subfolder under the user's home directory. Windows also ensures
the programs are installed properly for multiple use of the same memory
space. Both of these steps make the programs available for
multi-session access. Any program that displays the Certified for
Windows logo will be able to handle the differences between normal local
access and usage in a Terminal Services scenario. Other applications
can cause problems, so be sure to test each application before
Also, it's prudent to
check for prewritten scripts that help ensure an application is
installed properly for multi-user execution. Microsoft tests some common
applications for compatibility and releases templates and modifications
so that these programs will install correctly for use with Terminal
Services. You can find these scripts in %SystemRoot%\Application Compatibility Scripts\Install.
programs on the terminal server machine using RDC (for remote
administration) works like any other software installation program,
although depending on the application it might work only under the
remote administration terminal and not other users' sessions.
To install a program using the Add/Remove Programs tool, follow these steps:
Open the Add/Remove Programs applet inside the Control Panel.
From the left bar, choose Add New Programs.
Click CD Or Floppy, which will raise a wizard. Click Next to continue.
the program distribution media if it's external. Windows will attempt
to look in your drives for a setup file. If Windows can't find the file,
it will prompt you for its location. Click Next to complete this step.
will begin the installation, but it will leave the After Installation
dialog box open. Do not close that window until the installation is
finished; otherwise, the program will not function correctly. Also, do
not reboot the computer if the program's setup utility asks you to
the installation has completed, but before any necessary reboot, click
Next in the After Installation dialog box and let Windows detect the
changes and record the necessary data. Finally, click Finish.
Reboot at this point only if the setup program required it earlier.
Alternatively, you can go to the command line and use the change user
command, which cycles through what Windows Server 2003 terms install
modes and execute modes using switches attached to the command. Let's
look at that in a bit more detail.
Executing change user /install before installing a new application places the system in install mode. Install mode also suspends .ini file mapping, which Windows normally uses to match .ini
files to programs that use them and the associated users that actually
install the program. The system also notes the way the setup routine
initially installs the program. Running change user /execute when the installation finishes reverts the system to execute mode, reactivates .ini
file mapping, and propagates specific data for each user to their
respective home directories. In addition, when the user opens the
program, user-specific registry setting files (.ini, .dll, .ocx, and so on) are propagated as needed to the user's home directory.
So, in brief, follow these steps from the command line to manually install a program:
Before installing a program, run change user /install from the command line.
Then, install the program using the application's native setup routine.
When installation is complete, run change user /execute to finish the process.
you have begun installing programs for use on a terminal server
machine, do not uninstall Terminal Services. The programs installed
while Terminal Services was running might not function correctly at that
point. If this happens, the easiest way to start over is with a clean
slate: reformat the computer and reinstall the operating system.
2. Configuring Terminal Services Licensing
If you plan on using Terminal
Services in a production environment to support thin client users, you
must bring up a Terminal Services licensing server on your network
within 120 days. Terminal Services licensing is independent of regular
Windows Server 2003 licensing, meaning that a client license for Windows
Server 2003 does not necessarily entitle a user to connect to a
terminal server and use applications. (Connecting for administrative
purposes using simply Remote Desktop mode is allowed without a separate
Before actually placing a license server on your network, determine the type of license server you need. There are two types: a domain license server, which distributes licenses only within the Active Directory domain you select, or an enterprise license server
(the default choice), which allocates licenses to any computer within
the network. You'll be prompted for your choice upon initial licensing
setup. When you actually install the license server, avoid installing
Terminal Server Licensing on a terminal server computer unless you want
to spend hours troubleshooting weird errors on your servers; use a
separate machine instead. Also consider installing Terminal Services on a
member server, not a domain controller. Domain controllers have their
own load considerations, and the additional network, processor, and disk
constraints of Terminal Services can adversely affect performance.
you currently have a Windows 2000 Terminal Services Licensing server
and you decide to add to your environment a Windows Server 2003 machine
running Terminal Services, you also will need to add a Windows Server
2003 Licensing server. A Windows 2000 Licensing server cannot hold
licenses for a Windows Server 2003 machine running Terminal Services.
You can officially license
your Terminal Services capabilities on your network in one of three
ways. (Keep in mind that to activate a licensing server, you need to be a
member of the local Administrators group or a domain administrators
group, or have delegated authority from an administrator to perform the
To activate a Terminal Services license automatically, follow these steps:
Open the Terminal Services Licensing applet, found in the Administrative Tools group off the Start menu.
In the left pane, right-click the server you want to activate, and select Activate Server from the context menu.
Follow the prompts in the wizard to configure, license, and purchase the activation.
You also can use a web
browser to activate a Terminal Services server. Follow the preceding
steps, but select Web Browser from the Activation Methods list on the
first page of the wizard. Finally, you can use a telephone to activate a
Terminal Services server as well. Again, use the same procedure as
before, but select Telephone from the Activation Methods list on the
first page of the wizard.
After a Terminal
Services Licensing server is activated, it becomes the repository for
Terminal Server client licenses. A Terminal Services Licensing server
can issue temporary licenses for clients that allow use of terminal
servers for up to 120 days from the date of the first client logon.
After this evaluation period ends, a terminal server can no longer allow
clients to connect unless it locates a Terminal Services Licensing
server to issue client licenses.