Windows Vista : Performing Local PC Administration (part 1) - Working with workstation administration tools

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10/25/2011 11:46:36 AM
You've already seen how you can centrally manage change on Vista PCs and then, how you can track the changes that occur on each system. When configured properly, these tools reduce the administrative workload. But instances occur in which you need to interact directly with a PC to make sure it is working properly. When you do so, you need to know which tool is required when and how to get to it fast so that issues are resolved as soon as possible.


When issues arise on PCs, you need to determine the extent of the issue and then, determine whether you need to fix it or use another tactic to restore the PC to a functioning state. For example, if a system becomes corrupted and you estimate that it will take more than one hour to fix, then perhaps you should consider rebuilding the PC from scratch instead. Windows Vista offers significant improvements in deployment capabilities, and in some shops, it takes less than 30 minutes to rebuild a PC from the ground up. If this is the case in your shop, then keep this in mind when troubleshooting PC issues. If it takes less time to rebuild the system than it does to repair it, then rebuild it. Your users will be back to work a lot quicker and you won't be wasting your time.

The best place to start is with a list of the tools Windows Vista includes for administration purposes. Tools can be found in a series of different places on the system; therefore, it is important that you build your own desktop to facilitate systems management. Then, after you're aware of the various tools you have access to, you can begin to examine the most common administration tasks you'll need to deal with.

1. Working with workstation administration tools

Vista includes several enhanced tools for administration. You've already worked with several of them as you deployed your systems and created your change management and tracking strategy. Others will let you control each and every aspect of the Vista system. Table 1 lists the various tools you can use and where you can find them. Note that this table focuses on the tasks PC technicians need to perform.

Also, remember that for each of these tools, you must rely on the Run As Administrator command available from the context menu. This elevates the privilege of the tool and lets you perform all administrative tasks.

Table 1. Windows Vista Administration Tools
ToolPurposeLocationObtain From
Active Directory Users and ComputersUse this console to create OU structures and pre-populate objects, such as computer and user accounts. Also useful to reset user passwords.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Active Directory Users and Computers Start Menu => Run => dsa.mscInstalled from Windows Server 2003 (WS03) Administration Kit
Backup and Restore CenterUse this console to protect both data and full system settings.Start Menu => All Programs => Maintenance => Backup and Restore Center

Control Panel => System and Maintenance => Backup and Restore Center

Command Line => wbadmin.exe
Installed during Windows setup
Backup Status and ConfigurationUse to determine backup status and configure backups.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => System Tools => Backup Status and Configuration Start Menu => Run => sdclt.exeInstalled during Windows setup
BitLocker Full Drive EncryptionUse to protect a system's information by encrypting the system drive along with all other data drives.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => BitLocker Full drive EncryptionInstalled after Windows Setup but must be taken into consideration at installation because it requires a separate partition
Command PromptUse to perform operations without a graphical user interface. Useful for automating operations.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => Command Prompt Start Menu => Run => cmd.exeInstalled during Windows setup
ComputerUse to view disk drives and other hardware attached to the computer through the Windows Explorer.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories Computer Start Menu => System Tools =>=> right-click on Computer => ExploreInstalled during Windows setup
Computer ManagementUse this console to access most system settings. Includes access to local users and groups, services, events, disk management, and more. Most useful console on the system.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Computer Management

Start Menu => right-click on Computer => Manage

Start Menu => Run => compmgmt.msc
Installed during Windows setup
Control PanelUse this central panel to configure Windows Vista elements.Start Menu => Control Panel Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => System Tools => Control PanelInstalled during Windows setup
Data Sources (ODBC)Use this console to manage data source connections for applications.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Data Sources (ODBC) Start Menu => Run => odbcad32.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Default ProgramsUse to control which programs are launched at startup.Control Panel => Programs => Default ProgramsInstalled during Windows setup
Device ManagerUse to control device drivers and general status of devices on a system.Control Panel => System and Maintenance => System => Device Manager Also found in Computer ManagementInstalled during Windows setup
Disk CleanupUse to clean up temporary and other unnecessary files when disk drives are low in space.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => System Tools => Disk Cleanup Start Menu => Run => cleanmgr.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Disk DefragmenterUse to restructure disk data to improve file access and overall computer speed.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => System Tools => Disk Defragmenter Start Menu => Run => dfrgui.exeInstalled during Windows setup
DNS ResolverUse to troubleshoot Domain Name System (DNS) issues.Start Menu => Run => dnsdiag.exeDownload from the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit Tools
Event ViewerUse this MMC snapin to view logged events, such as errors and warnings.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Event Viewer Start Menu => Run => eventvwr.mscInstalled during Windows setup
Group Policy Management ConsoleUse this MMC to manage and apply Group Policy Objects to servers and workstations.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Group Policy Management Start Menu => Run => gpmc.mscIn Control Panel, install by clicking Programs, and then clicking Turn Windows Features on or off. With Service Pack 1, the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) must be installed first.
Help and SupportUse to locate both local and online information about Vista components.Start Menu => All Programs => Maintenance => Help and SupportInstalled during Windows setup
Indexing OptionsUse to configure Windows Search Indexing.Control Panel => System and Maintenance => Indexing OptionsInstalled during Windows setup
Internet Explorer (No Add-ons)Use to run a limited environment Internet Explorer without any ActiveX controls. Useful when issues arise with Web sites.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => System Tools => Internet Explorer (No Add-ons) Start Menu => Run => iexplore.exe-extoffInstalled during Windows setup
Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 ManagerUse to configure Microsoft Internet Information Services 7 settings.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => IIS Manager Start Menu => Run => iis.mscInstalled with Windows Server 2003 Administration Tools
iSCSI InitiatorUse to configure iSCSI connections from the desktop. Mostly useful for servers.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => iSCSI Initiator Start Menu => Run => iscsicpl.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Local Security Policy (LSP)Use to configure security policies on the local system. Most useful for PCs in a workgroup or disconnected from a domain.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Local Security Policy Start Menu => Run => secpol.mscInstalled during Windows setup
Manage Network ConnectionsUse to control the settings assigned to network interfaces. Supports both IPv4 and IPv6.Control Panel => Network and Internet => Network and Sharing Center => Manage Network ConnectionsInstalled during Windows setup
Memory Diagnostics ToolUse to analyze memory chips for potential problems.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Memory Diagnostics Tool Start Menu => Run => mdsched.exeInstalled during Windows setup Also available from the installation media DVD
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA)Use to scan local or remote systems for common configuration errors and to verify security best practices.Start Menu => All Programs => Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer

Start Menu => Run => mbsa.exe

Command Line => mbsacli.exe
Download from
Network MonitorUse to diagnose issues with server connectivity.Start Menu => All Programs => Microsoft Network Monitor 3.1 => Microsoft Network Monitor 3.1 Start Menu => Run => netmon.exeDownload from
NotepadUse to edit text files. Useful for creating command files to automate tasks.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => Notepad Start Menu => Run => notepad.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Performance Information and ToolsUse these tools to review the performance of a system.Control Panel => Performance Information and Tools => Advanced ToolsInstalled during Windows setup
Print ManagementUse to manage printing system on Vista PCs.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Print Management Start Menu => Run => printmanagement.mscInstalled during Windows setup
Problem Reports and Solutions (PRS)Use to collect crash dumps and debug information. It enables administrators to track and address errors relating to the Windows operating system, Windows components, and applications.Start Menu => All Programs => Maintenance => Problem Reports and Solutions Start Menu => Run => wercon.exeTo learn more about PRS, go to
Registry EditorUse to modify settings within the System Registry.Start Menu => Search => regedit or regedt32 Command Line => regedit or regedt32Installed during Windows setup
Reliability and Performance MonitorUse to establish a baseline of performance and to troubleshoot performance issues.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Reliability and Performance Monitor

Start Menu => Run => perfmon.msc

Also found in Computer Management
Installed during Windows setup
Remote Desktop ConnectionUse to establish a desktop connection on a remote computer in your own security context.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => Remote Desktop Connection Start Menu => Run => mstsc.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Remote DesktopsUse this console to bring together multiple remote desktop connections into one single environment. Very useful when managing several remote systems.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Remote DesktopsInstalled from Windows Server 2003 (WS03) Administration Kit or through RSAT For information on its use, go to,289142,sid68_gci1243095,00.html
Security Configuration and AnalysisUse this console to configure security settings on a system and to compare existing security settings with those in a template.Start Menu => Run => mmc then add the Security Configuration and Analysis snap-inInstalled during Windows setup
Security TemplatesUse this console to capture security settings into a template for application to other systems.Start Menu => Run => mmc then add the Security Template snap-inInstalled during Windows setup
ServicesUse to control startup state of various Windows services.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Services

Start Menu => Run => services.msc

Also found in Computer Management
Installed during Windows setup
Snipping ToolUse to capture portions of screens and turn them into images. Very useful for creating supporting documentation or for documenting issues.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => Snipping Tool Start Menu => Run => snipping tool.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Sync CenterUse to control synchronization settings for offline files as well as for portable digital assistants (PDA).Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => Sync Center Start Menu => Run => mobsync.exeInstalled during Windows setup
System ConfigurationUse to display system configuration information.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Services Start Menu => Run => msconfig.exeInstalled during Windows setup
System InformationUse to display information about the system.Start Menu All Programs System Tools msinfo32.exe Accessories System Information Start Menu Run Installed during Windows setup
System RestoreUse to restore a system to a given point prior to configuration changes.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => System Tools => System Information Start Menu => Run => msinfo32.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Task ManagerUse to control running processes on a system. Also provides a real-time view of performance.CTRL-ALT-DEL => Task Manager Right-click Taskbar => Task ManagerInstalled during Windows setup
Task SchedulerUse to automate tasks on either a schedule or an event basis.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Task Scheduler

Start Menu => Run => taskschd.msc

Also found in Computer Management
Installed during Windows setup
TelnetUse to perform remote administration.Command Line => telnet.exeIn Control Panel, install by clicking Programs, and then clicking Turn Windows Features on or off
User AccountsUse to control accounts on the local system.Control Panel => User Accounts Also found in Computer ManagementInstalled during Windows setup
Windows DefenderUse to defend against general malware and to clean infected systems.
Control Panel => Programs => Windows Defender Start Menu => Run => msascui.exe
Installed during Windows setup
Windows Easy TransferUse to transfer settings from one Vista PC to another. Use only when dealing with single PCs.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => System Tools => Windows Easy Transfer Start Menu => Run => migwiz.exeInstalled during Windows setup
Windows ExplorerUse to navigate through folder structures on local and remote PCs and servers.Start Menu => All Programs => Accessories => Windows Explorer

Start Menu => Run => explorer.exe

Start Menu => right-click on Computer => Explore
Installed during Windows setup
Windows Firewall with Advanced SecurityUse to control incoming and outgoing TCP/IP connections on Vista systems.Start Menu => Administrative Tools => Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Start Menu => Run => wf.mscInstalled during Windows setup
Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE)Use to restore damaged systems.Boot from the Windows Vista Installation Media Boot from the Installed WinRE systemInstalled after Windows Setup but must be taken into consideration at installation since it requires a separate partition
Windows Remote Management (WinRM)Use this command shell to execute commands remotely on other Windows Vista systems.Command Line => winrm.exeInstalled during Windows setup but must be activated to work
Windows Remote AssistanceUse to provide assistance to users when they have issues by sharing their desktop in their security context.Start Menu => All Programs => Maintenance => Remote Assistance Start Menu => Run => msra.exeInstalled during Windows setup

As you can see, there are many administrative tools in Windows Vista. In fact, it is sometimes difficult to keep up. Obviously, some will be much more useful than others. The best way to deal with these tools is to first, rely on Table 10.1 to figure out the correct tool to use for a specific purpose. Then make the tools you use the most often readily available by placing them on your Quick Launch toolbar. You use the Quick Launch toolbar instead of the Desktop because Quick Launch is always available no matter which tool you are working with. If you rely on the Desktop to place your shortcuts, then you always need to get back to the Desktop to access your tools, an operation which takes more time and several more mouse clicks.

Use the following procedure to prepare your environment:

  1. Make sure your Quick Launch Area is displayed and then right-click on the Taskbar. Choose Toolbars => Quick Launch. Do not uncheck it if it is already checked.

  2. Size your toolbar appropriately. Make sure that your Taskbar is unlocked by right-clicking it and deselecting the Lock the Taskbar. Doing this lets you view each individual toolbar and its limits in the Taskbar.

  3. Double the size of the Taskbar by positioning your cursor at the very top of the Taskbar until your cursor changes to an up-down arrow; then click and drag the Taskbar until it takes up two lines.

  4. Now take the Programs toolbar — the one where open programs are listed — by clicking its double-edged border at the left and dragging it to the bottom-left beside the Start button. Programs should now be listed at the bottom and the Quick Launch toolbar should be at the top.

  5. Lock the Taskbar again by right-clicking it and checking Lock the Taskbar. Your Taskbar should now look like the one in Figure 1.

    Figure 1. A locked two-line Taskbar displaying the Quick Launch Toolbar
  6. Now you can begin to populate your Quick Launch Area; do it by locating the item you want to add in the Start Menu, right-clicking it, and selecting Add to Quick Launch. Add the following items:

    • Command Prompt

    • Computer Management

    • Control Panel

    • Help and Support

    • Internet Explorer

    • MBSA

    • Network Monitor

    • Notepad

    • Reliability and Performance Monitor

    • Custom Security Configuration and Analysis and Security Templates

    • Snipping Tool

    • System Configuration

    • System Information

    • System Restore

    • Windows Explorer

    • Windows Firewall with Advanced Security

    • Windows Remote Assistance

    The resulting Taskbar is illustrated in Figure 2. Note that in addition to Quick Launch, this Taskbar also includes the Desktop toolbar. Add it by right-clicking on the Taskbar and selecting Toolbars => Desktop. Just like the Quick Launch toolbar, the Desktop toolbar adds ready access to any items on your desktop.

Figure 2. A well-configured Administrative Taskbar

Obtaining additional administration tools

As you build your Vista management and administration toolkit, you'll notice that you can add a significant number of tools to the default set found in the operating system. For example, when you run Windows Vista without Service Pack 1, the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) is installed by default, but when you run Vista with SP1, it is no longer available. In order to run the GPMC on Vista SP1, you must install a special toolkit called the Remote Server Administration Tools. Another source of tools is the Windows Server 2003 Administration Pack.

RSAT can help you manage environments running with any version of Windows Server from 2008 down. However, the RSAT for Windows Vista does not include all of the tools included in the Windows Server 2003 Administration Pack. For this reason, you might still want to install and run tools from the Windows Server 2003 administration toolkit in order to have access to administration features unavailable with RSAT. Table 2 lists the different tools available with either RSAT or with the Windows Server 2003 Administration Pack.

Table 2. Tools Available in RSAT and the WS03 Administration Pack
RSATWindows Server 2003 Administration PackComment
Active Directory Certificate Services ToolsPublic Key Management, Certification Authority 
Active Directory Domain Services ToolsActive Directory Tools 
Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services Tools Available separately through the Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) download
BitLocker Drive Encryption Tools BitLocker is only available for Vista and above
DHCP Server ToolsDHCP 
Distributed File System ToolsDistributed File System 
DNS Server ToolsDNS 
Failover Clustering ToolsCluster Administrator 
File Server Resource Manager ToolsFile Server Resource Manager ToolsOnly available from WS03 R2 and above
Group Policy Management ToolsGroup Policy Management Tool 
Network Load Balancing ToolsNetwork Load Balancing Manager 
Online Responder Tools Only available for WS08 and above
Server for NIS Tools Only available from WS03 R2 and above
Share and Storage Management Tools  
SMTP Server Tools  
Storage Manager for SANs Tools Only available from WS03 R2 and above
Terminal Services ToolsTerminal Services Tools 
UDDI Services ToolsUDDI Services 
Windows System Resource Manager Tools Separate download for WS03 and lower
 WINS Server Tools 
 Connection Manager Administration Kit 
 Internet Information Services 6.0 Manager 
 IP Address ManagementIntegrates DNS, DHCP, and WINS management tools into one.
 Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1 Configuration and Wizards 

Installing the Remote Server Administration Tools

Installing the Remote Server Administration Tools is performed in two steps. The first installs an update on the client system and the second installs the actual tools themselves.


If you are installing the RSAT on Windows Vista, you must have at least Service Pack 1 installed.

  1. Begin by installing the update. The update for RSAT is available in Knowledge Base article number 941314 at Download and install this update. Double-click on it to launch the installation process. This process requires elevated rights and is performed through the Windows Update Standalone Installer. Accept the license agreement to begin the installation. Once the installation is complete, the local Administration Tools will include a help topic for the Remote Server Administration Tools.

  2. Next, once the update has been installed, you need to enable the new RSAT Windows tools you want to use. Move to Control Panel => Programs and select Turn Windows features on or off. Accept the UAC elevation prompt and scroll down to Remote Server Administration Tools. You'll note that the RSAT section is divided into two subsections: Feature Administration Tools and Role Administration Tools. Expand both and check the tools you need on this system, as shown in Figure 3.

  3. Click OK to launch the addition of these tools.

Figure 3. The RSAT Toolkit in Windows Vista

You can also use the Windows Package Manager (pkgmgr.exe) along with the Windows Update Stand-alone Installer (WUSA) to do this with two command lines. The first relies on WUSA to install the update using the update file itself. Using the /quiet switch will perform the operation without user interaction. If you want to see the results, then omit this switch. And the second installs the feature you require. Note that there is a reboot after WUSA runs (first command).

wusa path\Windows6.0-KB941314-x86.msu /quiet
start /w pkgmgr /iu:WindowsAdministrationTools

Where path is the location of the update. You use start /w with Package Manager because it causes the command to wait until the operation is finished before moving to the next command, letting you know when it has completed. Of course, if you are running an x64 version of Vista, you would use the x64 version of the update package. Table 3 lists the available Remote Server Administration Tools in the RSAT package.


The Update and feature names used in these commands are case sensitive and must be type exactly as they are displayed. For example, the update name must be Windows6.0-KB941314-x86.msu.

Table 3. Tools Available in RSAT
Tool TypeFull Tool Name
Remote Server Administration Tools 
Feature Administration ToolsBitLocker Drive Encryption Tools
 Failover Clustering Tools
 Group Policy Management Tools
 Network Load Balancing Tools
 SMTP Server Tools
 Storage Manager for SANs Tools
 Windows System Resource Manager Tools
Role Administration ToolsActive Directory Certificate Services Tools
 Certificate Authority Tools
 Online Responder Tools
 Active Directory Domain Services Tools
 Active Directory Domain Controller Tools
 Server for NIS Tools
 Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services Tools
 DHCP Server Tools
 DNS Server Tools
 File Services Tools
 Distributed File System Tools
 File Server Resource Manager Tools
 Share and Storage Management Tools
 Terminal Services Tools
 UDDI Services Tools

If you want to add tools for the administration of Internet Information Server, then you must add additional tools on your workstation since they are not included in the RSAT. Once again, these tools are listed in the Windows Features dialog box. You can install tools for the management of the FTP service, IIS version 7.0 and IIS version 6.0, through this dialog box (see Figure 4). You can also install these tools using Package Manager with the following command line:

start /w pkgmgr /iu:IIS-WebServerRole;IIS6ManagementCompatibility

Figure 4. Adding Web Management Tools to Vista SP1


The IIS 6 management tools are also required to manage the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) even if you do not run IIS 6 Web sites.

Installing the Windows Server 2003 Administration Kit

The Windows Server 2003 Administration Kit (AdminPak.msi) provides additional management consoles that are simply not available by default on Vista. But, unless you are using the version available on a server running Service Pack 2, this administration package will not install on Vista whether you have Service Pack 1 or not. In order to get it to run, you will need to first install it, then run a command to register its components on Vista. If you use a server running SP2, then you only need to install it. Use the following procedure to do so:

  1. Locate an updated copy of the Administration Kit on one of your servers. Ideally, this server will be running at least Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2 or even better, WS03 R2 SP2. The adminpak.msi file is located in the %WINDIR%\System32 folder. The easiest way to access this file is to connect to the server's administrative share on the system disk; in most cases, this is \\servername\C$.

  2. Navigate to the %WINDIR%\System32 folder, locate adminpak.msi, and copy it to your PC.

  3. Double-click the adminpak.msi file once it is copied.

  4. Accept the UAC prompt and follow the onscreen instructions.

  5. If you used a version from WS03 SP2, then you're done. If for some unknown reason your servers are not at SP2, then copy the following commands into a text file and name it adminpack_vista.cmd. Run it when ready.

    @echo off
    set filelist=adprop.dll azroles.dll azroleui.dll ccfg95.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% certadm.dll certmmc.dll certpdef.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% certxds.dll cladmwiz.dll clcfgsrv.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% cluadmex.dll cluadmmc.dll cmproxy.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% cmutoa.dll cnet16.dll debugex.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% dfsgui.dll dhcpsnap.dll dnsmgr.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% dsadmin.dll dsuiwiz.dll imadmui.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% mprsnap.dll msclus.dll mstsmhst.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% nntpadm.dll nntpapi.dll nntpsnap.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% ntfrsapi.dll rasuser.dll rigpsnap.dll

    set filelist=%filelist% rscommon.dll rsconn.dll rsengps.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% rsservps.dll rsshell.dll rssubps.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% schmmgmt.dll tapisnap.dll tsuserex.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% w95inf16.dll w95inf32.dll winsevnt.dll
    set filelist=%filelist% winsrpc.dll winssnap.dll ws03res.dll
    for %%i in (%filelist%) do (
    echo Registering %%i ...
    regsvr32 /s %%i
    Echo All done!

Not all tools are useful, but if you are part of a large network, you'll see that many of them are.

This installation is monolithic; it does not let you choose which tools to install. If you want to install only specific tools, for example, Active Directory tools, without any of the other tools, then use a command line to do so. The following command line installs the AD tools and only these tools. Make sure that you use an elevated Command Prompt.

msiexec /i adminpak.msi ADDLOCAL=FeADTools /qb

Doing this helps keep your system uncluttered with tools you do not need.


More information on extracting specific tools from the Administration Kit can be found at

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