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SECURITY

Windows Server 2008 : Transport-Level Security - Using IPSec Encryption with Windows Server 2008 R2

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IP Security (IPSec), mentioned briefly in previous sections, is essentially a mechanism for establishing end-to-end encryption of all data packets sent between computers. IPSec operates at Layer 3 of the OSI model and subsequently uses encrypted packets for all traffic between members.

IPSec is often considered to be one of the best ways to secure the traffic generated in an environment, and is useful for securing servers and workstations both in high-risk Internet access scenarios and also in private network configurations for an enhanced layer of security.

Understanding the IPSec Principle

The basic principle of IPSec is this: All traffic between clients—whether initiated by applications, the operating system, services, and so on—is entirely encrypted by IPSec, which then puts its own header on each packet and sends the packets to the destination server to be decrypted. Because every piece of data is encrypted, this prevents electronic eavesdropping, or listening in on a network in an attempt to gain unauthorized access to data.

Several functional IPSec deployments are available, and some of the more promising ones are actually built in to the network interface cards (NICs) of each computer, performing encryption and decryption without the operating system knowing what is going on. Aside from these alternatives, Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a robust IPSec implementation by default, which can be configured to use a PKI certificate network.

Detailing Key IPSec Functionality

IPSec in Windows Server 2008 R2 provides for the following key functionality that, when combined, provides for one of the most secure solutions available for client/server encryption:

  • Data privacy— All information sent from one IPSec machine to another is thoroughly encrypted by such algorithms as 3DES, which effectively prevents the unauthorized viewing of sensitive data.

  • Data integrity— The integrity of IPSec packets is enforced through ESP headers, which verify that the information contained within an IPSec packet has not been tampered with.

  • Anti-replay capability— IPSec prevents streams of captured packets from being resent, known as a “replay” attack, blocking such methods of obtaining unauthorized access to a system by mimicking a valid user’s response to server requests.

  • Per-packet authenticity— IPSec utilizes certificates or Kerberos authentication to ensure that the sender of an IPSec packet is actually an authorized user.

  • NAT Traversal— Windows Server 2008 R2’s implementation of IPSec now allows for IPSec to be routed through current Network Address Translation (NAT) implementations, a concept that will be defined more thoroughly in the following sections.

  • Diffie-Hellman 2048-bit key support— Virtually unbreakable Diffie-Hellman 2048-bit key lengths are supported in Windows Server 2008 R2’s IPSec implementation, essentially ensuring that the IPSec key cannot be broken.

Exploring IPSec NAT Traversal

As previously mentioned, IPSec in Windows Server 2008 R2 supports the concept of Network Address Translation Traversal (NAT-T). Understanding how NAT-T works first requires a full understanding of the need for NAT itself.

Network Address Translation (NAT) was developed simply because not enough IP addresses were available for all the clients on the Internet. Because of this, private IP ranges were established (10.x.x.x, 192.168.x.x, and so on) to allow all clients in an organization to have a unique IP address in their own private space. These IP addresses were designed to not route through the public IP address space, and a mechanism was needed to translate them into a valid, unique public IP address.

NAT was developed to fill this role. It normally resides on firewall servers or routers to provide for NAT capabilities between private and public networks. Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) for Windows Server 2008 R2 provides NAT capabilities as well.

Because the construction of the IPSec packet does not allow for NAT addresses, IPSec traffic has, in the past, simply been dropped at NAT servers, as there is no way to physically route the information to the proper destination. This posed major barriers to the widespread implementation of IPSec because many of the clients on the Internet today are addressed via NAT.

NAT Traversal (or NAT-T), which was introduced in Windows Server 2008 and is available in Windows Server 2008 R2’s IPSec implementation, was jointly developed as an Internet standard by Microsoft and Cisco Systems. NAT-T works by sensing that a NAT connection will need to be traversed and subsequently encapsulating the entire IPSec packet into a UDP packet with a normal UDP header. NAT-T handles UDP packets flawlessly, and they are subsequently routed to the proper address on the other side of the NAT.

NAT Traversal works well but requires that both ends of the IPSec transaction understand the protocol so as to properly pull the IPSec packet out of the UDP encapsulation. With the latest IPSec client and server, NAT-T becomes a reality and is positioned to make IPSec into a much bigger success than it is today.

Note

NAT-T was developed to keep current NAT technologies in place without changes. However, some implementations of NAT have attempted to make IPSec work natively across the translation without NAT-T. Disabling this functionality with NAT-T might not be wise, however—it might interfere with IPSec because both NAT-T and the NAT firewall will be attempting to overcome the NAT barrier.

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