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SECURITY
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Windows Server 2008 : Examining File-Level Security
The latest revision of the NT File System (NTFS) is used in Windows Server 2008 R2 to provide for file-level security in the operating system. Each object that is referenced in NTFS, which includes files and folders, is marked by an access control entry (ACE) that physically limits who can and cannot access a resource.
Server 2008 : Hardening Server Security
Depending on the size of an organization, a server might be designated for one or multiple network roles. In an ideal world, a separate server or servers would be designated to handle a single role, such as DHCP server or DNS server.
Server 2008 : Using the Integrated Windows Firewall with Advanced Security
The firewall with advanced security is fully integrated with the Server Manager utility and the Server Roles Wizard. For example, if an administrator runs the Server Roles Wizard and chooses to make the server a file server, only then are those ports and protocols that are required for file server access opened on the server.
Server 2008 : Deploying Physical Security
One of the most overlooked but perhaps most critical components of server security is the actual physical security of the server itself. The most secure, unbreakable web server is powerless if a malicious user can simply unplug it.
Programming .NET Security : Programming Digital Signatures (part 3) - Using the Signature Formatter Classes
For the RSA algorithm, the hash codes are generated using an instance of System.Security.Cryptography.HashAlgorithm, provided as an argument to the SignDataVerifyData methods
Programming .NET Security : Programming Digital Signatures (part 2) - Using the Implementation Class
For the RSA algorithm, the hash codes are generated using an instance of System.Security.Cryptography.HashAlgorithm, provided as an argument to the SignDataVerifyData methods
Programming .NET Security : Programming Digital Signatures (part 1) - Using the Abstract Class
The abstract System.Security.Cryptography.DSA class defines the CreateSignature method, which accepts a SHA-1 hash code that will be PKCS #1 formatted and signed
Programming .NET Security : Digital Signatures Explained
Digital signatures are a different application of the asymmetric algorithms . You use an asymmetric key pair to create a "signature" for a message by adding a signature function to the asymmetric algorithm.
Programming .NET Security : Programming Asymmetrical Encryption
The .NET Framework takes the same approach to representing asymmetric algorithms as it does for symmetric algorithms and hashing algorithms; abstract classes extend the System.Security.Cryptography.AsymmetricAlgorithm class for each of the supported algorithms.
Programming .NET Security : Asymmetric Encryption Explained (part 2) - Creating the Encrypted Data
Asymmetric algorithms use much longer keys than symmetric algorithms. In our examples, we selected small values to demonstrate the key generation protocol, but the numeric values used in practice contain many hundreds of digits.
Programming .NET Security : Asymmetric Encryption Explained (part 1) - Creating Asymmetric Keys
Most asymmetric algorithms use keys that are very large numbers, and the RSA algorithm is no exception. In this section, we demonstrate the RSA key generation protocol and provide you with some general information about the structure and usage of asymmetric keys.
Programmatic Security (part 6) - Assembly-Wide Permissions
Instead of type-based or even method-based security configuration, you can declaratively apply security permission attributes to an entire assembly, affecting every component in the assembly
Programmatic Security (part 5) - Permission Set Attributes
You can declaratively instruct .NET to take a security action, such as demanding or asserting a permission set, using the PermissionSetAttribute class
Programmatic Security (part 4) - Permission Set Classes
Instead of constructing individual permissions and demanding them, or using a permission to modify a stack walk, you can programmatically construct permission sets.
Programmatic Security (part 3) - Permission Attributes
All security permission classes have equivalent attribute classes. You can apply the security attributes instead of programmatically creating a permission class and demanding a stack walk or installing a stack-walk modifier.
Programmatic Security (part 2) - Stack-Walk Modifiers
An object can modify the behavior of the stack walk as it passes through it. Each permission class implements the IStackWalk interface
Programmatic Security (part 1) - The Permission Classes
Although for the most part administrative security configuration is sufficient, .NET also provides various programmatic ways to control and enforce security. You can use these powerful techniques to tighten security, optimize performance, handle unknown security policies, and deal with questionable components
Programming Symmetrical Encryption (part 3) - Encrypting and Decrypting Data
The SymmetricAlgorithm class delegates the process of encrypting and decrypting data to the ICryptoTransform interface, which exposes the details of handling data in blocks.
Programming Symmetrical Encryption (part 2) - Configuring the Algorithm
The public properties of the SymmetricAlgorithm class provide a mechanism that allows you to configure an algorithm before data is encrypted or decrypted. The following sections describe the configuration options and the impact that each option has.
Programming Symmetrical Encryption (part 1)
The .NET Framework takes the same basic approach to defining symmetric algorithms; abstract classes extend the System.Security.Cryptography.SymmetricAlgorithm class for each of the supported algorithms
Programming .NET Security : Symmetric Encryption Explained (part 3)
Most messages do not divide neatly into the fixed-size blocks required by the cipher function, and there is usually a partial data block left over at the end. The cipher function cannot process partial blocks, and the algorithm adds "padding" to the leftover data to create a complete block.
Programming .NET Security : Symmetric Encryption Explained (part 2) - Cipher Modes
Most symmetric encryption algorithms operate in different cipher modes, which specify variations in the way that data is prepared before being processed by the cipher function.
Programming .NET Security : Symmetric Encryption Explained (part 1) - Creating the Encrypted Data
At the heart of a symmetric encryption algorithm is a cipher function that transforms fixed-size blocks of message data, known as plaintext, into blocks of encrypted data, known as ciphertex
Hashing Algorithms: Extending the .NET Framework (part 1)
The HashCore method receives message data into the algorithm class; the amount of data to process can vary from a single byte to very large arrays.
Hashing Algorithms: Extending the .NET Framework (part 1)
The Adler32 algorithm generates a 32-bit hash code and is included as part of GZIP-compressed files to guard against inadvertent modification (for example, errors introduced in copying a compressed file over a network connection).
Programming Keyed Hashing Algorithms
The .NET Framework has a much more direct model for representing keyed hashing algorithms. There are no abstract classes for different algorithms, meaning that there can be only one implementation of each keyed algorithm.
Programming .NET Security : Keyed Hashing Algorithms Explained
Keyed hashing algorithms address the problem of Eve intercepting and replacing both the message and the hash code that Alice sent to Bob. Keyed hashing algorithms mix a secret key in with the message data blocks when creating a hash code
Programming Hashing Algorithms (part 5) - Validating Hash Codes
Now that you have seen how to create hash codes (playing the role of Alice), we will show you how to validate them, playing the role of Bob. Remember that Bob receives a hash code and a message from Alice
Programming Hashing Algorithms (part 4) - Hashing Streamed Data
You can also create a hash code from a stream of data; this is useful for processing datafiles or for reading data from a network connection. The HashAlgorithm class contains an overloaded version of the ComputeHash method for working with streams
Programming Hashing Algorithms (part 3) - Hashing Data from Memory
The simplest way to generate a hash code is to use data held in memory. The overloaded ComputeHash method is able to create a hash code from a byte array, as shown by the following signature
Programming Hashing Algorithms (part 2) - Instantiating the Algorithm
The first step toward creating a hash code is to create an instance of an implementation class for the algorithm that you want to use. The simplest way of doing this is to use the name of the class directly
Programming Hashing Algorithms (part 1) - The HashAlgorithm Class
The design of the HashAlgorithm class makes it very simple to generate hash codes for any of the hashing algorithms that the .NET Framework supports.
Programming .NET Security : Hashing Algorithms Explained
A hashing algorithm creates a hash code, also called a "message digest" or "message fingerprint." Hash codes are of limited use for communications security, because Eve can replace both the hash code and the message that Bob receives, but they are an essential element of digital signatures.
Programming .NET Security : Cryptography Explained (part 2)
Integrity becomes an issue when Alice wants to send a message to Bob but is concerned that Eve will tamper with the message and change the contents. In this case, Alice does not care if Eve can read the message—she only wants to make sure that Bob can detect any changes made by Eve.
Programming .NET Security : Cryptography Explained (part 1) - Confidentiality
The most common way to describe cryptographic systems is to assume that one person (usually named Alice) wants to send a message to another person (Bob). However, a third person (Eve) is determined to eavesdrop on their conversation.
.NET security : Administering Isolated Storage
You can use both the .NET Framework Configuration tool (Mscorcfg.msc) and the Code Access Security Policy tool (Caspol.exe) to administer security policy to grant access to isolated storage
.NET security : Programming Isolated Storage
Isolated storage is simple to use and requires knowledge of relatively few classes. The most important class is System.IO.IsolatedStorage.IsolatedStorageFile. IsolatedStorageFile objects represent individual stores and provide methods to manage the files and directories contained within the stores, as well as properties to access information, such as the store's isolation scope, current size, and maximum size
.NET security : Isolated Storage Explained
Many applications need to write data to a persistent store so that it's available each time the application runs. Data, such as user preferences and application state, is generally user-specific and needs to be stored in such a way that other users, and possibly other applications, cannot access and modify it.
Programming Role-Based Security
In your applications, you protect functionality by making role-based security demands that specify the identity or role that the thread's principal must contain. If the thread's principal does not contain the demanded identity and role, then the demand causes an exception.
Role-Based Security Explained
Role-based security (RBS) is a common security model in contemporary computing. When users wish to access a computer system, they must first prove their identity—a process known as authentication.
 
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